MN551 ADVANCED PATHOPHYSIOLOGY ACROSS THE LIFESPAN

A community health nurse practitioner is teaching a group of female high school students about the importance of regular Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The nurse recognizes that which of the following items underlies the rationale for this teaching?
The active substitution of normal cells in the cervix correlates to cancer risk.
Undifferentiated stem cells are an early indicator of cervical cancer.
Cancer of the uterine cervix develops incrementally at a cellular level.
Dysplasia in the connective tissue of the cervix is a strong precursor to cancer.
Question 2.
A patient who has a diagnosis of lung cancer is scheduled to begin radiation treatment. The NP providing pretreatment education is explaining some of the potential unwanted effects of the treatment. Which of the following statements by the nurse is most accurate?
“Some patients experience longer-term irritation of skin adjacent to the treatment site.”
“Sometimes you might find that your blood takes longer to clot than normal.”
“The changes that you might see are normally irreversible.”
“The unwanted effects will be limited to the exposed portions of your skin.”
Question 3.
Which of the following patients of a primary care nurse practitioner would not require extra screening for cancer?
A 51-year-old woman whose grandmother died of breast cancer
A 48-year-old man who takes immunosuppressant drugs following a kidney transplant
A 50-year-old male who is obese and has a low-fiber, high-fat diet
A 38-year-old female with Down syndrome and congenital scoliosis
Question 4.
A nurse practitioner is educating a patient with a recent diagnosis of diabetes about the roles that glucose and insulin play in the disease pathology and the fact that glucose must enter the cell in order to provide energy for the patient. The nurse practitioner knows that which of the following processes allows glucose to enter body cells
Osmosis
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
Diffusion
Question 5.
A student nurse practitioner asks her preceptor about the origins of different tissues, and their cellular origins during the process of development. Which of the following statements by the preceptor best describes the process of cell differentiation?
“Cells of the hematopoietic system produce the appropriate body cells that are required at each stage of development.”
“A single stem cell differentiates into approximately 200 different types of cells.”
“A fertilized ovum undergoes a series of divisions, yielding many different cell types.”
“Cells differentiate into necessary body cells, peaking after conception, and ceasing near the time of birth.”
Question 6.
The nurse practitioner is seeing a client who has an acute exacerbation of Crohn’s disease. The NP recognizes the fact that the disease involves the inflammation and irritation of the intestinal lining. Which of the following types of tissue is most likely involved in the patient’s pathology?
Simple columnar epithelium
Glandular epithelium
Simple cuboidal epthelium
Stratified epithelium
Question 7.
A nurse practitioner employed in a hospitalist notices that a patient is experiencing muscle atrophy following 2 weeks in traction after a motor vehicle accident. Which of the following factors has most likely contributed to the atrophy of the patient’s muscle cells?
High levels of insulin and IGF-1 in the patient’s blood during immobilization
Denervation of the affected muscles during the time of traction
A reduction of skeletal muscle use secondary to the traction treatment
Reduced oxygen consumption and cellular function that ensures muscle cell survival
Question 8.
A 7-year-old boy is admitted to the hospital with a suspected diagnosis of lead toxicity. Which of the following assessment findings is most congruent with the patient’s diagnosis?
Decreased deep tendon reflexes
Hemoglobin 9.9 g/dL
Diffuse muscle pain
White blood cells (WBC) 11,000/mm3
Question 9.
The NP is teaching a group of older adults about the value of including foods containing antioxidants in their diet. Which of the following statements best captures the rationale underlying the NPs advice?
Antioxidants inhibit the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Antioxidants prevent the formation of superoxide dismutase.
Antioxidants react nonspecifically with molecules.
Antioxidants prevent the occurrence of cell dysplasia.
Question 10.
Which of the following statements most accurately conveys an aspect of cell injury due to impaired calcium homeostasis?
Normal intracellular calcium ion levels are higher than extracellular levels.
Ischemia and certain toxins cause a decrease in cytosolic calcium.
Injured cells tend to accumulate calcium.
Low calcium levels cause an activation of damaging enzymes.
Question 11.
The NP is providing care for a 21-year-old female patient with gas gangrene of a compound fracture in her arm. Which of the following assessment findings would the nurse most reasonably expect to find when caring for a patient with a diagnosis of gas gangrene?
Inflammation of the affected tissue
A positive culture for Staphylococcus
Spreading edema
Impaired alveolar gas exchange
Question 12.
A 45-year-old patient who experienced exposure to radiation during an industrial accident several years prior is being assessed. Which of the following phenomena may underlie the genetic changes that have been noted in the patient?
Base pairs may have been rearranged by the radiation exposure.
Endonucleases may have influenced the DNA structure following exposure.
Two paired bases may have exchanged helical positions after the accident.
The radiation may have produced redundant or degenerate genetic code.
Question 13.
A child possesses a trait that is the result of the interaction of two different genes, neither of which could have produced the trait independently. Which of the following explanations best captures the genetic explanation for this?
The trait is an expression of multiple alleles.
Epistasis has dictated the phenotypic outcome.
The phenomenon is an example of polygenic inheritance.
The outcome is the result of the interaction between collaborative genes.
Question 14.
A group of researchers has identified that the prevalence of two particular genetic disorders share a statistical correlation. Which of the following statements best conveys the genetic rationale for this situation?
There is likely a cause-and-effect relationship between the two genes responsible.
The chromosomes containing each gene are likely closely situated.
The genes causing each disorder are likely in the same section of the same chromosome.
The disorders likely share the same locus.

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